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SARS-COV-2 Infection in Children and Newborns: A Systematic Review

The aim of this study is to systematically review the key clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pediatric age. A search was conducted in the PubMed database. Selected articles published between January 1 and May 1, 2020, including children between the ages of 0 and 18. Sixty-two studies and three reviews were included, with a sample of 7480 children (2428/4660 male 52.1%; weighted mean age 7.6 years).

What is known: • There is limited evidence for SARS-CoV2 infection in children.

Announcements:

  • Systematically reviewed available evidence has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infected children may have a less severe pattern of disease than adults
  • Blood tests and radiology results are primarily nonspecific in children, but can help identify those who are seriously ill.

May 17, 2020. J Med Virol. Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of Demographic, Clinical, Laboratory and Imaging Features in 2,597 Pediatric Patients

In this review, the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of 2,597 pediatric COVID-19 patients were evaluated. Lymphopenia, more common in adults, was found to occur rarely in children (9.8%).

Additionally, elevated creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme was observed much more commonly in children (27.0%) than in adults, suggesting that heart injury would be more likely in pediatric patients. May 17, 2020. Allergy. Allergy and asthma in children and adolescents during the COVID outbreak:

What we know and how we could prevent allergy and asthma flares?

The article outlines the management of children and adolescents with allergy and asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the authors, all children and adolescents with asthma should stick to their treatment plan. Primarily, those with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma should not discontinue medications, including corticosteroids, and follow their physician’s recommendations. May 13, 2020.

The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. The severity of COVID-19 in children on immunosuppressive medication

What we know and how we could prevent allergy and asthma flaresIn 6 weeks after March 15, 2020, 18 children from 16 pediatric nephrology centers in 11 countries (Spain, Switzerland, China, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Sweden, Colombia, United States, Iran and Belgium) who met our criteria were included in the study. We considered diagnoses, ongoing immunosuppressive treatment, clinical symptoms and outcomes.

These data, although from a small number of children, suggest that children receiving immunosuppressive treatment for various indications also appear to have a mild clinical course. Similarly, a study with eight children with inflammatory bowel disease revealed that all children diagnosed with Covid-19 had a mild infection, despite treatment with immunomodulators, biological substances, or both. 11 May 2020. Acta Biomed.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents: An update on current clinical and diagnostic characteristics

This document summarizes the results (as of April 3, 2020) of a systematic review of the literature on current knowledge of COVID-19 in adolescents (10-19 years according to the WHO definition) and reports the preliminary epidemiological data declared by the Istituto Superiore di Italian healthcare.

In summary, compared to elderly patients, adolescent and young adult COVID-19 patients have a longer incubation period, a shorter serial interval, more likely to be asymptomatic, and a lower mortality rate. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to confirm the lower susceptibility and milder clinical presentation of COVID-19 in adolescents and extended follow-up to provide more detailed information on potential risk factors that interfere with clinical outcomes.

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