In the past month, a 30 times higher incidence of Kawasaki-like disease has been found.
Children diagnosed after the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak who showed evidence of immune response to the virus, were older than previously observed cases, had a higher rate of cardiac involvement, characteristics of macrophage activation , need for additional steroid treatment.
The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been associated with a high incidence of severe Kawasaki disease. A similar Kawasaki-like disease outbreak is expected in countries involved in the SARS-CoV-2.7 outbreak in May 2020. The Lancet. Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic
Over a 10-day period in mid-April 2020, we noticed an unprecedented group of eight children with hyperinflammatory shock, showing characteristics similar to atypical Kawasaki disease, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome, or toxic shock syndrome (the typical number is one or two children per week).
- This group of cases formed the basis of a national report. April 28, 2020. BMJ. Covid-19: concerns grow over inflammatory syndrome emerging in children
- Doctors in the UK are warning of an increasing number of children with multisystem inflammation and in need of intensive care.
- To learn more, read the editorial Risks to children and young people during covid-19 pandemic
Children and teens as a source of infection
Viral load in children: back to school and normality
1 October 2021. JAMA Pediatr. Comparison of Symptoms and RNA Levels in Children and Adults With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Community SettingHow is the presence of symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in children versus adults in the community?
In this cross-sectional study of 555 children and adults with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, symptomatic individuals had higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels than asymptomatic individuals. There were no significant differences in RNA levels between asymptomatic children and asymptomatic adults or between symptomatic children and symptomatic adults.
Regardless of age, in this community study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels were highest in symptomatic individuals. For further information: Implications of SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Children: Getting Back to School and Normal
Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children compared with adults
Compared to adults, children with SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swabs were less likely to develop cultured viruses and had higher cycle thresholds and lower viral concentrations, suggesting that they are not the main transmission drivers.
- Risk of infection and outcomes in families with and without children
March 18, 2021. BMJ.
- Association between living with children and outcomes from covid-19: OpenSAFELY cohort study of 12 million adults in England
- The study aims to investigate whether the risk of infection for SARS-CoV-2 and the 2019 coronavirus disease outcomes differ between adults living with and without children during the first two waves of the UK pandemic.
Unlike the first wave, there is evidence of an increased risk of reported SARS-CoV-2 infection and covid-19 outcomes among adults living with children during wave # 2. However, this did not translate into a materially increased risk of covid-19 mortality and the absolute increases in risk were small.
Prevalence of COVID-19 in adolescents and young people compared to adults
March 10, 2021. Prevalence of COVID-19 in adolescents and youth compared with older adults in states experiencing surges.
- There has been considerable controversy regarding the susceptibility of adolescents (10-19 years) and young people (15-24 years) to COVID-19.
- A number of studies have reported that adolescents are significantly less susceptible to the disease. However, the results of this study are contrary to the previous ones.
Public health messages aimed at adolescents and young people could be useful in curbing the pandemic and the potential high transmissibility between adolescents and young people should be taken into account in decisions regarding the reopening of the school.