Covid-19 duration and symptoms in symptomatic UK school-age children
October 10. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. Illness duration and symptom profile in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2
Prospective cohort study on data from UK school-age children (ages 5-17) reported by an adult proxy. Participants were volunteers and used an app jointly launched by Zoe Limited and King’s College London.
Disease duration and symptom prevalence were analyzed in children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 for which it was possible to determine the duration of the disease and were evaluated overall and divided into two groups, ages 5-11 years and 12- 17 years. 258,790 children between the ages of 5 and 17 were reported between March 24, 2020 and February 22, 2021, including 75,529 with valid test results for SARS-CoV-2.
1734 children (588 younger and 1146 older children) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and a calculable disease duration within the study time period. Median disease duration was longer in older children (7 days, IQR 3-12) than in younger children (5 days, 2-9). 77 (4.4%) of 1734 children had a disease duration of at least 28 days, most commonly in adolescents.
February 25, 2021. Acta Paediatr. Coronaviruses in children: A review of potential mechanisms of childhood protection
The pathophysiology of coronavirus infections suggests several viral targets and immunomodulatory pathways that can influence their severity. There is limited evidence to suggest the age variability of viral cell receptors and transmembrane cofactors required for coronavirus entry and replication. However, the resulting cytokine storm and the effect of increased melatonin in children are age-dependent and may explain the decrease in disease variability.
Current evidence suggests that host characteristics may play a role in disease severity in children and thus may remain protective despite the potential mutation of the virus in the future. However, the authors look forward to future research that may further clarify why children are protected from the serious COVID-19 disease.January 22, 2021. JAMA.
Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and Their Parents in Southwest Germany
This cross-sectional study included 4964 participants: 2482 children (mean age, 6 [range, 1-10] years; 1265 boys [51%]) and 2482 parents (median age, 40 [range, 23-66] years; 615 men [24.8%]). Two participants (0.04%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The estimated seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was low in parents (1.8% [95% CI, 1.2-2.4%]) and 3 times lower in children (0.6% [95% CI, 0 , 3-1.0%]).
- Among 56 families with at least 1 child or parent with HIV, the combination of a parent with HIV and a corresponding child with HIV was 4.3 (95% CI, 1.19-15.52) times higher than the combination of a parent who he was seronegative and a corresponding child with seropositivity. Virus neutralization activity was observed for 66 of the 70 IgG positive serum samples (94.3%).
- The spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection during a lockdown period in southwestern Germany has been particularly low in children between the ages of 1 and 10. As a result, the children are unlikely to have amplified the pandemic.
- This SARS-CoV-2 prevalence study, which appears to be the largest focusing on children, is instructive on how ad hoc mass testing provides the basis for rational political decision making in a pandemic. 4 January 2021. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of pediatric COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
COVID-19 is prevalent in all pediatric age groups and presents with varying degrees of symptomatology. However, children have a milder course of the disease with an extremely favorable prognosis. Laboratory and radiological characteristics are inconsistent and require further investigation. Further studies on this topic are needed to corroborate the findings and establish a consistent evidence-based characterization of COVID-19 in the pediatric population.